Fish have been raised for centuries in flooded fields and ponds. More recently these technologies have become a major focus of development efforts concerned with food production. Both the raising of fish and of plants in water without soil are unusual agricultural efforts, however. Only the wealthier and more innovative farmers are interested. Consequently, schemes that on paper and in a government-sponsored agricultural station sound quite impressive are not tried.
There is little scientific support of aquaculture. The usable surface area of the oceans is relatively small; the open sea is unsuitable. Coastal areas and shallow seas are highly prized by commercial and sport fishermen, pleasure boaters, swimmers, oil and other mineral explorers, housing developers and those who dump waste. The increasing amounts of pollution: sewage, industrial wastes, fertilizers, pesticides, silt, heated water, trash, oil, and radioactive substances are making some whole seas unsuitable for aquaculture. Unclear ownership rights of seas, even coasts increases the risk of potential sea farmers. Conservation laws sometimes prevent its development by forbidding the capture of young animals or of mature females. The number of marine animals which can be cultivated is small.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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