Such areas are generally under threat from development and agricultural use. Introduced and invasive species can also be a significant problem.
Low-growing shrubs usually under 0.5 m tall. Individuals or clumps not touching to interlocking generally forming 25% cover -- trees and shrubs generally forming 25% cover. Dwarf-shrub cover (rarely) may be less than 25% in cases when the cover of each of the other lifeforms present; i.e. tree, shrub, herb, nonvascular, is less than 25% and dwarf-shrub cover exceeds the cover of the other lifeforms.