In 1992 and 1993 arranging transportation of emergency food supplies to isolated towns and remote rural areas became major issues in Somalia and Bosnia, even when the food was readily available at central distribution points. In Bosnia the difficulties were aggravated by shifting front lines and the need to use mountain roads perfect for ambush, which were shelled, flooded and buried under avalanches. In Angola in 1993 high levels of malnutrition were faced by towns isolated by civil warfare. In such situations the difficulties of distributing essential supplies are severely disrupted by shelling and sniper fire. Convoy leaders are often required to force, bluff or buy their passage from rival armies, warlords and black marketeers.
In 1993 it was reported that governments such as the UK did not undertake any evaluation of the use to which emergency funds are put by the recipients. In many cases such donations have been found to be quite inappropriate, whilst most foreign relief workers were unemployed or grossly underused. Their needs constituting a significant management burden on the local authorities in disaster areas.