In many communities the options for local employment are extremely limited. Perhaps the major limiting factor has to do with the seasonal nature of local employment, often the result of an economy based on the use of natural resources. Although diversification is necessary to develop a broad-based economy, many rural communities continue to limit themselves to agricultural activities, and the size and scope of rural business life has not changed significantly in many years. A large percentage of the established population works in the fields at the intensive labour of farming, employment which the young often reject in favour of city jobs. There is also a prevalent attitude that only one age group or only one sex does certain jobs, almost as if there were no way to keep everyone busy all the time.
In the absence of industry, steady jobs are mostly located at a distance from the community. Families which would like to return are prevented from doing so by the absence both of available unskilled jobs, and of adult training programmes coordinated with employment needs. This migration pattern is disruptive to family patterns and to the entire community when whole generations are absent. The exodus of young people to the city causes village population to remain small despite a high birth rate. Many of the former residents would probably prefer to remain in the villages but see few job or economic investment options there, since the government provides few programmes for communities of small size, either to attract industry into rural areas or to provide jobs. In addition, the educational standards demanded for some jobs appear to be unrelated to the actual requirements of the positions sought; therefore students do not feel motivated to pursue higher education or to acquire technical skills.