Imprisonment with delayed trial Denial of right to speedy trial Excessive imprisonment on remand Excessive custodial detention prior to trial Protracted preventive detention Excessive period in custody
The proportion of defendants in criminal cases imprisoned pre-trial is indicative of the efficiency and equity of a nation's penal and judicial system. Where pre-trial prisoners are high in ratio to convicted prison inmates, it is a danger signal that human rights are being violated. While fluctuating crime rates and average lengths of sentences affect this ratio, it obviously bears social and legal investigation when, for example, numbers of prisoners have not been brought to trial even after months of incarceration.
In the UK for example, there is an ever increasing number of prisoners kept in less than humane conditions in police cells, and delays for prisoners in custody from arrest to trial have increased from 23 days in 1979 to 41 days in 1982. Around 1,400 prisoners on any one day have been in custody and awaiting trial for over 110 days. Other examples are Belgium, with 1997 figures indicating 40% of total inmates are awaiting trial; and Venezuela, where the proportion of cases held pre-trial is excessive: 11,412 out of 14,425 inmates - almost 80%.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.