Destruction of wetland environments

Experimental visualization of narrower problems
Other Names:
Vulnerability of wetlands
Exploitation of peat land
Drainage of marshes
Depletion of peat bogs

Wetlands are under threat from drainage, reclamation projects and a deterioration in water quality due to human development efforts, particularly in agriculture and industry. There is an increasingly harmful build up of sediments and toxic chemical pollutants affecting fish and other types of aquatic life.

The evidence is increasing of poor quality water bodies affecting wild life, notably migratory birds and in particular their reproductive capacities.


The Ramsar Convention was originally agreed in 1975 to stem the progressive encroachment on, and loss of, wetlands. In 1993, there were 77 parties to the Convention from regions throughout the world.

Systematic drainage of the Mesopotamian Marshes is well underway by the Government of Iraq, allegedly to crush the resistance of dissidents taking refuge there. The wetlands lie between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in lower Iraq and constitute of the the most important wintering areas in western Eurasia for migratory waterbirds. Iraq is not a signatory to the Ramsar convention and there is no national conservation strategy or legal protection for any part of the marshes. There are also reports that toxic chemical such as Indolin are purposely being poured into the waters, killing turtles and fish. Marsh Arabs, or Ma'dan, have lived in the marshes for at least 5,000 years. In addition to desiccation of the marshes (already initiated upstream by the construction of the Tabqa dam in Syria and the Ataturk dam in Turkey) and poisoning of the marshes, their villages are under intensive artillery bombardment.

A survey revealed that 86,868 hectares of lowland peat soils remained in Britain in 1991. In 1993 it was estimated that the maximum area of natural, undamaged lowland raised bogs in the UK is less than 6,200 hectares (6% of the area of "virgin" raised bog). That was much less than the minimum protection threshold of 10,000 hectares.

Because the importance of wetlands was poorly understood in the past, over half of the wetlands in the United States have been lost since the time of European settlement. In some states and many watersheds, less than 10 percent of the original acreage of wetlands remains. Although the rate of loss has been dramatically reduced in recent years, the United States continues to sustain a net loss of approximately 100,000 acres of wetlands every year.

Vast swamp areas on Borneo, in which can be found orang-utans, bears, deer, wild pigs and several species of rare birds, became threatened after the Indonesian government decided to farm about one million hectares of peatland in 1995.

African wetlands have a rich biological diversity, with many endemic and rare plant species as well as wildlife such as migratory birds. Wetlands are found in most African countries, the largest are the Okavango Delta, the Sudd in the Upper Nile, the Lake Victoria and Chad basins, and the floodplains and deltas of the Congo, Niger and Zambezi rivers. Despite being among the most biologically-productive ecosystems in Africa, wetlands are often regarded locally either as wasteland, habitats for pests and threats to public health or as potential areas for agriculture. As a result many wetlands are being lost. During 1970's and 1980's for example, Niger lost more than 80 per cent of its freshwater wetlands. Coastal wetlands in Egypt and Tunisia and freshwater wetlands in the Sudan are also under increasing threat.

Related Problems:
Endangered public reserves
Related UN Sustainable Development Goals:
GOAL 6: Clean Water and SanitationGOAL 10: Reduced InequalityGOAL 14: Life Below WaterGOAL 15: Life on Land
Problem Type:
D: Detailed problems
Date of last update
03.08.2021 – 18:00 CEST