Domestic bias in the regulation of restrictive business practices
Double standards in restrictive trade practices
Double standards in national policies, namely, on the one hand, that restrictive business practices affecting the domestic market should be strictly controlled and in many cases prohibited, since they impede economic growth and efficiency, while, on the other hand, ignoring or fostering the use of such practices when they have effects outside the domestic economy, notably in respect of exports, have increasingly been used as a government commercial policy device to regulate world trade. These double standards have enabled governments of a number of developed market-economy countries to resort to growing protectionism via the back door. Instead of raising tariffs or introducing non-tariff barriers to regulate import competition, industries and governments in certain importing developed market-economy countries have brought pressure on industries and governments in exporting countries to limit (and fix) prices for exports, leading to the establishment or strengthening of export cartel arrangements, in order to implement so-called "voluntary export restraints" or orderly marketing arrangements agreed between the parties concerned.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.