Malpractice in radiology Corruption of radiologists Underreporting of radiation risks Misconduct by radiologists Misuse of radiographic techniques Professional misconduct of radiographers Illegal use of radioactive isotopes Intimidatory use of radioactive materials Temptations of radiologists
In 1949, US scientists deliberately released a cloud of radioactive iodine into the atmosphere over Washington state to judge their ability to monitor radioactive plumes.
Radiologists, under pressure from their employers, have adopted practices which lead to the underreporting of radiation hazards, failure to adjust radiation thresholds in the light of potential hazards, and failure to investigate adequately the nature of such hazards. Examples include hazards of long-term exposure to low-level radiation in nuclear installations, improper recommended X-ray dosages for medical purposes, sterilization of water and food with radioactive isotopes, radioactive radiation to detect living things inside vehicles at sensitive border crossings, and long-term consequences of exposure to nuclear weapons tests. In each case radiologists have denied or suppressed evidence indicative of the levels of danger.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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