Most of the institutions with mandates to deal with the challenges of society at this time tend to be independent, fragmented and working to relatively narrow mandates with closed decision processes. The mandates of central economic and sectoral ministries of government are also often too narrow and too concerned with quantities of production or growth. They deal with one sector or industry in isolation, failing to recognize the importance of intersectoral linkages. These intersectoral connections create patterns of economic and ecological interdependence rarely reflected in the ways in which policy is made. Those responsible for managing natural resources and protecting the environment are institutionally separated from those responsible for managing the economy. Such institutions, and the policies which they engender, are inadequate in the face of the interlocked economic and ecological systems. Sectoral organizations tend to pursue sectoral objectives and to treat their impacts on other sectors as side effects, to be taken into account only if compelled to do so.