Distrusted economic co-operation Non-cooperative economic relations Lack of international economic coordination Lack of economic cooperation Economic schism Divided economic community
The EEC/EU, EFTA, the Nordic Council, CMEA and other regional organizations outside Europe; and the groupings of nations in the OECD, OPEC and various commodity cartels - all these fragment the world economic system into a drastic play of forces that are beyond any one group of nations to control. Rivalry forces the entire global network of trade and finance to drive upwards and downwards unpredictably with consequent hardships, usually falling more heavily on the smaller nations.
For most developing countries except the largest, a new era of economic growth depends, in the short-term, on effective and coordinated management among major industrial countries in order to facilitate expansion, reduce real interest rates, and halt the tendency to protectionism. In the longer term, major changes are also required to make consumption and production patterns sustainable in a context of higher global growth. International economic cooperation to achieve the former is embryonic, and to achieve the latter is negligible.
Integration schemes tend to favour the more advanced members of a grouping, who benefit from the liberalization of trade and the expansion of their markets; while the less advanced members of a grouping tend to gain less, unless the scheme provides for structural changes in the latter countries. Special problems facing the less advanced countries include not only the smallness of their markets, but more particularly the absence of supplies exportable to the other partners of their grouping.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.