Execution of illegal orders Blind obedience Irresponsible obedience
Officials, employees and military personnel can receive orders which they recognize as leading to harmful or unjust consequences. They are then faced with whether to obey them, given that obedience is the basis for their employment and they are liable to lose their job, or be subject to other penalties, if they fail to execute the order. Execution of orders in violation of human rights or those endangering the environment.
In some countries there is authorization not to execute orders which are manifestly unlawful, but it remains difficult to define the meaning of manifestly by reference to international law. Despite acceptance of the principle, in concrete settings it remains easier for the individual to execute such an order rather than be exposed to the penalties of failing to do so.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a unique, experimental research work of the Union of International Associations. It is currently published as a searchable online platform with profiles of world problems, action strategies, and human values that are interlinked in novel and innovative ways. These connections are based on a range of relationships such as broader and narrower scope, aggravation, relatedness and more. By concentrating on these links and relationships, the Encyclopedia is uniquely positioned to bring focus to the complex and expansive sphere of global issues and their interconnected nature.
The initial content for the Encyclopedia was seeded from UIA’s Yearbook of International Organizations. UIA’s decades of collected data on the enormous variety of association life provided a broad initial perspective on the myriad problems of humanity. Recognizing that international associations are generally confronting world problems and developing action strategies based on particular values, the initial content was based on the descriptions, aims, titles and profiles of international associations.
Non-profit, apolitical, independent, and non-governmental in nature, the UIA has been a pioneer in the research, monitoring and provision of information on international organizations, international associations and their global challenges since 1907.