Industries in difficulty Outmoded industries Decline in industry competitiveness Declining industrial sectors Older industries Ageing industrial sectors Vulnerable industries
Decline may stem primarily from the emergence of a cost-effective domestic substitute, in which case it is questionable whether any efforts should be made to modernize the outmoded industry or to protect it from foreign competition. In the case of trade-impacted industries making undifferentiated products in which costs alone determine sales, major declines inevitably resulted when the industries lost competitiveness. But the chronic adjustment problem for threatened industries is not a failure to move resources out of declining industries but rather that of adjustment within sectors and firms.
The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is a collaboration between UIA and Mankind 2000, started in 1972. It is the result of an ambitious effort to collect and present information on the problems with which humanity is confronted, as well as the challenges such problems pose to concept formation, values and development strategies. Problems included are those identified in international periodicals but especially in the documents of some 60,000 international non-profit organizations, profiled in the Yearbook of International Organizations.
The Encyclopedia includes problems which such groups choose to perceive and act upon, whether or not their existence is denied by others claiming greater expertise. Indeed such claims and counter-claims figure in many of the problem descriptions in order to reflect the often paralyzing dynamics of international debate. In the light of the interdependence demonstrated among world problems in every sector, emphasis is placed on the need for approaches which are sufficiently complex to encompass the factions, conflicts and rival worldviews that undermine collective initiative towards a promising future.
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