Cattle diseases

Experimental visualization of narrower problems
Other Names:
Diseases of cows

Cattle (Bos taurus) are large, domesticated, bovid ungulates widely kept as livestock. They are prominent modern members of the subfamily Bovinae and the most widespread species of the genus Bos. Mature female cattle are called cows and mature male cattle are bulls. Young female cattle (heifers), young male cattle (oxen or bullocks), and castrated male cattle (steers) are all colloquially called "cows".

Cattle are commonly raised for meat, for dairy products, and for leather. As draft animals, they pull carts and farm implements. In India, cattle are sacred animals. Small breeds such as the miniature Zebu are kept as pets.

Taurine cattle are widely distributed across Europe and temperate areas of Asia, the Americas, and Australia. Zebus are found mainly in India and tropical areas of Asia, America, and Australia. Sanga cattle are found primarily in sub-Saharan Africa. These types, sometimes classified as separate species or subspecies, are further divided into over 1,000 recognized breeds.

Around 10,500 years ago, taurine cattle were domesticated from wild aurochs progenitors in central Anatolia, the Levant and Western Iran. A separate domestication event occurred in the Indian subcontinent, which gave rise to zebu. There were over 940 million cattle in the world in 2022. Cattle are responsible for around 10% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Cattle were one of the first domesticated animals to have a fully-mapped genome.

Broader Problems:
Animal diseases
Related Problems:
Goat diseases
Sheep diseases
Problem Type:
D: Detailed problems
Date of last update
04.10.2020 – 22:48 CEST