Mismanagement of farm animals may include inadequate feeding, inadequate housing (not allowing enough light, space, ventilation), overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, abuse of antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of forced growth. Such mismanagement may lead to a loss of productive capacity but, significantly, it may be unnecessarily inhumane and lead to severe animal stress and discomfort. The problem may occur through ignorance or through excessive commercial exploitation of animals, often by industrial concerns which have less knowledge and appreciation of the requirements of animals than does the farming community in general.
Inadequate care of farm animals leads to less than maximum productivity and much animal stress. Inaccurate assessment of demand for animal products leads to surpluses and financial loss. Surpluses frequently occur in production from intensive farming units, where investors are concerned mainly with a high rate of production and quick turnover, without taking due account of the level of demand. Losses from surplus production are not so detrimental as they can be offset against tax returns; therefore there is less incentive to curb this kind of agricultural mismanagement.
Zoos may not provide enough space for wild animals, nor the environment which is conducive to their well-being.