Homosexuals who wish to have a child must have recourse to someone other than their regular sexual partner in order to conceive a child. Lesbian couples frequently resort to in vivo artificial insemination with the sperm from a male friend donor, or from the sperm bank of a fertility clinic.
Not all fertility clinics will assist homosexual couples to have children; there are concerns that role models of both sexes are not present in the home for the child, that there will be less parental input from the non-biological parent, and that the child will be unhappy at school because his peers will taunt him about his non-standard family.
In 1990 a British court ruled that no group of women could be excluded from assistance in reproduction. Private donor arrangements are not legally recognized, so the non-biological co-parent has no legal rights to the child.
Lesbian couples have had children in the USA, the Netherlands and the UK. It is estimated that there might be a few hundred couples in the UK.